Obesity is an independent risk factor for dyslipidemia during pregnancy

  • Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol

  • von Elisabeth Aron, MD, MPH, FACOG
  • Clinical Essentials
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Takeaway

  • Maternal obesity, not gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) alone, is linked to dyslipidemia during pregnancy.

Why this matters

  • Maternal obesity, a modifiable risk factor, is associated with GDM, dyslipidemia, and adverse neonatal outcomes.

Study design

  • Prospective observational study.
  • Women with at least 1 maternal risk factor (obesity, family history of diabetes, personal history of polycystic ovarian syndrome, ethnicity, previous history of GDM, previous infant weighing ≥4.5 kg) for GDM were recruited at their first antenatal visit. 
  • 75-g oral glucose tolerance test performed at 26-28 weeks of gestation.
  • Funding: None.

Key results

  • 53.5% were diagnosed with GDM.
  • Women diagnosed with GDM were more likely to have:
    • Obesity: 70.4% vs 42.6% (P<.002 and>
    • ≥2 risk factors for GDM: 38.9% vs 22.3% (P=.011).
  • Among women with GDM:
    • 60.2% had abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) only;
    • 27.8% had abnormal FPG and abnormal 1- or 2-hour measurement (or both); and
    • 12% had normal FPG with abnormal post-glucose load test.
  • Women with GDM vs without also had:
    • Lower high-density lipoprotein levels (mmol/L): 1.8 vs 1.9 (P=.013); and
    • Higher triglycerides (mmol/L): 2.2 vs 1.9 (P=.023).
      • However, when stratified by maternal obesity, neither GDM nor obesity alone was associated with increased dyslipidemia risk.

Limitations

  • Single-center study; results may not be generalizable.