A cohort study of individuals with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) showed that exposure to high levels of early-life trauma resulted in a two-fold increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes compared with those with lower exposure, according to an article published in JAMA Cardiology.
The analysis included 300 adults with a verified history of MI. The researchers assessed early-life trauma and obtained baseline levels of inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The main outcomes studied were a composite endpoint of recurrent MI, stroke, heart failure hospitalisation, and cardiovascular death.
Overall, 154 individuals (51%) reported early-life trauma, and those with a higher score had a more adverse socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cardiometabolic profile. Moreover, they had higher baseline levels of interleukin 6 and CRP, independent of demographic and clinical risk factors as well as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.
The findings show that high levels of early-life adversity as a categorical variable were associated with approximately doubling the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
This study reveals that exposure to early-life adversity is an important prognostic indicator in young and middle-aged individuals with a history of MI, potentially through a proinflammatory state, the authors conclude.